How To Choose the CNC Router Spindle Correctly?

Choose the CNC Router Spindle

一、 Classification of CNC Router Spindle.

Generally speaking, CNC Router Spindle is usually equipped with CNC Router. According to the CNC Router Spindle’s heat dissipation method, CNC Router Spindle is divided into a water-cooled CNC Router Spindle and an air-cooled CNC Router Spindle. When the CNC Router Spindle rotates at high speed, it will generate a lot of heat. If this heat is not dissipated in time, it will significantly impact the service life of the CNC Router Spindle and even burn the CNC Router Spindle in severe cases. So every CNC Router Spindle will be equipped with a heat dissipation function. CNC Router Spindle mainly has two cooling methods: water cooling and air cooling. Is it better to choose an air-cooled CNC Router Spindle or a water-cooled CNC Router Spindle? BuyCNC will help you compare and analyze as follows:

1 cnc rotuer spindle water cooling
2 cnc router air cooling

1. Heat dissipation effect.

The water-cooled CNC Router Spindle, as its name implies, uses water circulation to cool the heat generated by the CNC Router Spindle after high-speed rotation. This method will have a good effect because the spindle’s temperature after the heat is dissipated by water circulation will not exceed 40 degrees.
The air-cooled CNC Router Spindle uses a fan to dissipate heat, and its effect is not as good as water cooling.

2. Noise.

The water-cooled CNC Router Spindle is very noisy, but the air-cooled CNC Router Spindle is very noisy.

3. Service life.

Under normal circumstances, if the water-cooled CNC Router Spindle is maintained on time, changes the water frequently, or uses an industrial water cooler, its service life is much longer than that of the air-cooled CNC Router Spindle. However, under particular circumstances, water-cooled motors’ service life is shorter than that of air-cooled engines. For example, if cooling water is not added in time, the water-cooled CNC Router Spindle will burn out.

4. Accuracy.

The axial and radial runouts of the water-cooled CNC Router Spindle are basically below 0.003 mm, far less than the air-cooled CNC Router Spindle (domestic)!

5. Convenience of use and maintenance.

Since the water-cooled CNC Router Spindle needs to be connected to a water pump, a bucket is required to hold water, and a water pipe is also required. Especially in the cold winter, the water is easy to freeze, and some customers will find it more troublesome to add antifreeze. However, the air-cooled CNC Router Spindle will not have so many usage problems, no cooling water is required, and the connection is simpler and more convenient.

二、Power selection of CNC Router Spindle.

Many customers will care about this question: what power CNC Router Spindle should be selected. Is the power of the CNC Router Spindle determined, the more significant, the better? Many customers hope to use high-power CNC Router Spindle processing to improve work efficiency. We should consider this problem comprehensively. The power of the CNC Router Spindle is too large, which wastes electrical energy and increases the cost of the customer’s purchase of the machine. If the power is too small, it cannot meet the needs of users. The power of the CNC Router Spindle is determined according to the processing material and processing technology. Generally speaking, the more complex the processed material, the more powerful CNC Router Spindle is needed. If the same material is processed, the cutting power is greater than the CNC Router Spindle used for engraving. As far as the engraving process is concerned, the following is our recommended CNC Router Spindle power according to different materials:

1. Advertise CNC Router.

The engraving object is a relatively soft material, so the CNC Router Spindle power of the advertising CNC Router can be within 1.5kw—3.0kw. If you choose this way, you can achieve the purpose of engraving and save costs.

2. Woodworking CNC Router.

The power of the CNC Router Spindle of the woodworking CNC Router can be selected according to the wood’s hardness to be processed. Generally around 2.2kw-4.5kw, this combination is also the most reasonable.

3. Stone CNC Router.

The power of the CNC Router Spindle of the stone CNC Router used by manufacturers is relatively high, generally around 4.5kw-7.5kw, and the most commonly used is the 5.5kw CNC Router Spindle.

5 4 cnc rotuer spindle for stone

4. Tombstone CNC Router.

Tombstone CNC Router Spindle power should also be selected according to the processed stone’s hardness. Generally, the power of 3.0kw-4.5kw can meet customer needs.

5. Jade CNC Router.

The power of the Jade CNC Router is 1.5kw-3.0kw because of its small bed.

6.Metal CNC Router.

According to the engraving and milling materials, select the corresponding CNC Router Spindle power.

7.PCB industry.

The power of CNC Router Spindle is generally 700W-1.5KW.

9 cnc rotuer spindle for PCB

三、 CNC Router CNC Router Spindle speed setting for processing different materials:

Under normal processing conditions, the most critical parameter that affects CNC Router tools’ service life is the CNC Router Spindle speed. Under the same conditions, the lower the CNC Router Spindle speed, the longer the tool life. To prolong the tool’s service life, it is desirable to set a lower CNC Router Spindle speed, but the speed of the CNC Router Spindle motor cannot be reduced indefinitely. When the CNC Router Spindle motor’s speed is too low, at the same feed speed Under the conditions, the cutting force becomes more extensive, which makes the tool unbearable. So when processing a specific material, CNC Router Spindle has a reasonable speed range.
CNC Router processing various materials processing speed and CNC Router Spindle speed ratio table: specific analysis of specific conditions, only for reference for general materials.


1. Plexiglass (acrylic).

Thickness Speed Rotating speed
20mm 5-6 20000-22000
15mm 6-7 19000-21000
10mm 8-9 18000-20000
5mm 10-12 18000-20000
3mm 10-14 16000-18000

2. PVC (Note: cutting counterclockwise).

Thickness Speed Rotating speed
20mm 8-12 18000-20000
15mm 10-14 16000-18000
10mm 15-20 16000-18000

3. Fulong board (note: cutting counterclockwise).

Thickness Speed Rotating speed
20mm 15-20 18000-19000
15mm 20-25/td> 16000-18000
10mm 20-25 16000-18000

4. MDF (Note: single-edged knife cutting).

Thickness Speed Rotating speed
18mm 6-8 18000-20000
15mm 8-10/td> 18000-20000
10mm 10-14 17000-19000

5. Two-color board.

Thickness Speed Rotating speed
1.5mm 10-20 12000-14000


1. Two-color plate engraving parameters.

(1) Name badge
Speed Rotating speed
18-24 12000-14000
(2) Big house number
Speed Rotating speed
25-35 12000-14000

2. Engraving three-dimensional characters with a large angle knife.

Speed Rotating speed
15-18 16000-18000

四、The correct use of a water-cooled CNC Router Spindle:

1. Before starting up, first turn on the cooling system (water chiller or cooling water pump) to ensure that the cooling circulation system can usually work, and then turn on the CNC Router Spindle. It is strictly forbidden to use a water-cooled CNC Router Spindle without cooling or with abnormal cooling!
2. The coolant must be clean (to prevent dirt from entering the CNC Router Spindle to block the cooling pipeline), add the coolant in time, pay attention to the temperature of the coolant, if the weather is too high, replace the coolant or stop working, and wait until the temperature is average. working.
3. It is better to use a stabilized power supply for the machine to ensure the work’s reliability and prevent damage to the CNC Router Spindle caused by the dangerous current.
4. When you start working every day, you must warm up the CNC Router Spindle. The CNC Router Spindle runs for 5 minutes from low to high for each gear to ensure the CNC Router Spindle’s accuracy when it works. This is what you must do every day when you turn on it. !
5. It is strictly forbidden to continue to use lean tools for workpiece processing. Continued use will increase the axial force of the CNC Router Spindle, resulting in damage to the bearings and image engraving accuracy.
6. Knife loading and unloading is strictly forbidden to beating or impacting the rotor of CNC Router Spindle
7. It is strictly forbidden for untrained personnel to operate the machine to avoid misoperation, primarily the knife sticking phenomenon (if the knife sticking occurs, stop it immediately and re-run it before using it to avoid more significant damage).
8. When using workpiece cutting fluid, it is strictly forbidden to flush the cutting fluid directly onto the CNC Router Spindle nut and rotor. Once the cutting fluid rushes to the CNC Router Spindle nut and rotor, it is easy to carry the cutting fluid along with the high-speed rotation of the CNC Router Spindle. In the bearing inside the CNC Router Spindle, the lubricant in the direction will decompose, severely damage the path, and reduce the CNC Router Spindle’s life.
9. Before installing the tool, first clean the tool holder, rotor, and CNC Router Spindle nut to remove the residue in the tool holder’s gap and thread to prevent damage to the nut and rotor.
10. To up and down the tool according to the correct method, one can not use brute force to prevent the rotor and CNC Router Spindle nut from slipping.
11. The CNC Router Spindle cannot be operated 24 hours a day. It would be best if you rested for a few hours a day to extend the CNC Router Spindle’s life.

The knife card and CNC Router Spindle nut should be replaced in time if they are damaged.

五、CNC CNC Router CNC Router Spindle failure and solutions.

1. CNC Router Spindle does not run after booting.

The reason may be that the plug on the CNC Router Spindle is not connected well, or the wire inside the plug is not in good contact. We need to check whether there is a problem with the wiring; if it is confirmed that there is no problem, check whether the inverter has a signal or whether the inverter parameter setting is correct; If it is confirmed that there is no problem, it may be that the stator coil of the CNC Router Spindle hardware has been burned out, and the ring needs to be returned to the factory for repair and replacement.

2. The CNC Router Spindle stops after a few seconds of startup.

The reason may be that the startup time is too short. Properly extend the acceleration time before the CNC Router Spindle works and start carving after reaching the operating speed; it may also be the current protection caused by the lack of phase of the CNC Router Spindle, which requires us to check the CNC Router Spindle. Whether the connection is correct; besides, if the CNC Router Spindle is filled with water or insufficient water cooling, it is also easy to cause hardware failures, which require a return to the factory for repair.

3. The CNC Router Spindle shell is hot or smoking for a period of time after starting up and running.

First, check whether the water circulation pipe is unobstructed and check whether the inverter setting parameters are correct, and re-set the inverter. If there is nothing wrong with these two items, it is possible that the inverter does not have output voltage, frequency, and CNC Router Spindle nameplate. The rated voltage and frequency are different. We need to check the reference frequency of the inverter.

4. The nut loosens when CNC Router Spindle starts.

Check if the rotation direction of CNC Router Spindle is wrong, if it is wrong, you need to change the rotation direction according to the mark on the CNC Router Spindle nameplate.

5. The CNC Router Spindle is noisy or the CNC Router Spindle vibrates.

六、What is the reason for the abnormal noise of CNC Router CNC Router Spindle? How to solve common noise problems?

The noise problem of the CNC Router Spindle is a common problem that plagues CNC Router users. How to judge and repair faults is a problem that users care about. When there is an abnormal sound on the CNC Router Spindle, we first check whether the frequency converter parameters match the rated parameters of the motor. Secondly, check whether the CNC Router Spindle bearings are standard. If the sound is loud, it may be that the paths used by the CNC Router Spindle are not very good and will not affect the service life.

BuyCNC summarizes some common noise problems of CNC Router Spindle, and hopes to help users:

(1) Impurity sound:

Sometimes this kind of sound does not exist. Sometimes it is loud and very irregular. It often happens on high-speed motors. This may be caused by the poor cleanliness of the bearing or oil. It is also necessary to improve the cleanliness of the installation environment and the path’s sealing performance.

(2) Voice:

It may be caused by the vibration or impact of the cage and rolling elements. It may also be caused when the torque, load, or radial clearance is ample. This needs to improve the accuracy of the retainer. Bearings with small clearance or preload can reduce torque loads and installation errors.

(3) Buzzing.

When the motor is running with no load, it will make a humming sound, and the engine will produce abnormal axial vibration, and it will make a humming sound when it is turned on or off. The self-aligning performance of the shaft is not good. Under the influence of axial vibration, it will be in an unstable vibration state. You need to adjust it and check the lubrication status.

(4) Tap tap sound.

The frequency of the sound changes with the speed of the bearing. The noise is caused by the surface ripples of the parts, which can improve the bearing raceway surface’s processing quality, reduce the tides’ amplitude, and reduce the bulge. Check the free end bearing’s operation to improve the precision installation method of the shaft and the bearing box.

It can be seen that the faults corresponding to different sounds are also various. This requires you to learn to listen to the sound, distinguish the sound, troubleshoot the CNC Router Spindle from the abnormal sound and the corresponding effective solutions. However, BuyCNC reminds you that other reasons may also cause noise. You can also consult our professionals to help you solve the problem.

If you need more professional information about cnc router, please feel free to contact us online.Or contact as follow:

Email:  [email protected]

Whatsapp:  +8615610181456

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